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The Mine

At the peaks of the Ilbir mountains lies the world's only CSARITE® mine

More than 3000ft above sea level, CSARITE® IS CAREFULLY MINED by Turkish-owned Milenyum Mining, whose specialist team hand-picks each gem from deep within the mountain.

CSARITE®, a Turkish miracle

Ilbir Mountains / southwest Turkey

A single site, single mine gem

In the rural countryside of the Mugla province of south west Turkey, roughly 25km from the small city of Milas, lies the only mine currently known to produce CSARITE®.

Located in the westernmost part of the infamous Menderes Massif, the mine is positioned in one of the most continuously deforming areas of the world.

This, alongside its remote location continues to test modern engineering and technology. it is only as a result of perseverance and ceaseless cooperation with local communities that Milenyum continues to successfully extract this magnificent gemstone from the Turkish landscape.

the Geology of CSARITE®

the Making of a Color Shift Gem

The Mountain Building Process

Well over 100 million years ago the Menderes Massif, a large metamorphosed culmination on the western tip of the Anatolian tectonic plate, started to form due to compressional deformation.

Over the space of 50 million years, persistent tectonic convergence forced the earth’s limestone topped crust and its underlain metabauxite deposit upwards forming the rolling peaks of the Ilbir Mountains.

Setting the scene for Csarite®

10 million years after their formation another bout of tectonic activity destabilised the mountain range internally, forcing open cracks and fracture zones, and allowing hydrothermal supersaturated solutions to infiltrate upwards through the earth.


As these solutions traversed the mountain range, they remobilized some metabauxite components, particularly aluminum, before cooling, expanding and crystalising within the vacant fracture zones, forming crystals.

A Gemstone is formed

In those areas where enough space, the right temperature and perfect mineral composition was present macrocrystal Turkish Colour Change Diaspore, now know as CSARITE®, was able to form, where it lay undiscovered for over 30 million years.

Hand picking every last piece

Single Mine / Turkish Mountainside

Turkish owned and operated mining entity, Milenyum mining, is responsible for the extraction, processing and distribution of rough CSARITE®.

Working out of its wholly-owned mining license, Milenyum’s highly-qualified and experienced team is committed to unearthing CSARITE® in a fully transparent and sustainable manner.

With CSARITE®’s host rock (bauxite) being a source of high-quality aluminium, Milenyum works alongside sister company Beyler Metal Mining, a specialist bauxite miner, during the CSARITE® mining process. This not only minimises waste and maximise efficiency but also minimizes environmental impacts and spreads socio-economic and environmental responsibilities.

Whilst underground, Milenyum carefully monitors Beyler’s bauxite operations, controlling production at every step to ensure that all identifiable CSARITE® is preserved.

CSARITE® / processing / precision picking

All rough CSARITE® is then processed by the sort house, where it is cleaned and meticulously sorted into several size and quality grades before being securely stored, ready for distribution to a select group of trusted Distribution Partners.

When identified, CSARITE® veins are carefully uncovered by an experienced team who hand-pick the rarity from deep within the mountainside.

Roughly 70% of rough CSARITE® is removed during this process, while all remaining CSARITE® is processed alongside its host rock at a specialist plant, where a team of skilled pickers sort through the bauxite with precision and pace in search of any remaining gemstones.

Discover more about the CSARITE® mine

a unique operation for a unique gemstone


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Hand picked / 3000ft / single source


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Ethical / Sustainable / Transparent


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Employees / Communities / Cooperation

Our People

  • CSARITE® is ethically mined by a diverse team of locally employed men and women, with over 75% of our employees coming from the Mugla region and over 95% from Turkey.
  • CSARITE® supports the women in mining movement, with over 20% of our workforce being women who have been trained and now undertake semi-skilled work within the mining operation.
  • CSARITE® has directly benefitted the local communities through building and repairing local schools and assisting in the fight against wildfires and other natural disasters.
  • As part of our commitment to community upliftment, CSARITE® supports community sports events, markets, and festivals, bringing the community together, promoting local culture and economy, and encouraging collective prosperity.

Our Environment

  • Environmental impacts are incorporated into strategic decision-making processes and mine operations in the most sensitive manner. As such, all CSARITE® mining is carefully planned and monitored for its environmental impact, and all mining areas are actively rehabilitated upon being decommissioned as per local regulations and in consultation with local communities and regulatory bodies.
  • Our underground operations maximize efficiency and minimize our environmental impact, making CSARITE® mining an environmentally sustainable operation; Unlike most gemstone mines where over 90% of all excavated earth is waste, the CSARITE® mining operation allows for the extraction of both CSARITE® and its host rock, bauxite.
  • To find out more see our sustainability page.

Our Mining

  • Located 3000ft above sea level at the mountain peak, the CSARITE® mine is one of the most spectacular in the world with awe-inspiring views of Bafa lake, the Mediterranean Sea, and the awe-inspiring Turkish countryside.
  • The CSARITE® mine enters the Turkish mountain peaks and traverses the mountainside horizontally, making it rather unique.
  • Bauxite, also known as Aluminum ore, is CSARITE®’s host rock and is mined alongside CSARITE® in the Ilbir Mountains.
  • Mined directly from the bauxite rock face, CSARITE® is hand-picked by a select group of highly trained individuals, ensuring every piece is preserved.
  • With a cut and polished yield among the lowest in the industry, only 2% of all rough CSARITE® that comes out of the ground ends up in the stunning CSARITE® jewelry we wear, making it one of the rarest commercially sold precious gemstones on earth.